Mediafax (Mediafax)
Czech republic  |  October 27, 2012 15:13:46

FOCUS: The establishment of independent Czechoslovakia crisis preceded the Habsburg monarchy


PRAGUE (MEDIAFAX) - Deep economic and internal political crisis of the Habsburg Monarchy and the First World War were the main impetus for the creation of an independent Czechoslovakia. Since its inception, this year will mark 94 years.

Establishment of Czechoslovakia in 1918 was preceded by prolonged tensions between nations living together in the Habsburg monarchy. In the Czech Republic presented a major problem of coexistence of Czechs and Germans, which paralyzed and provincial governments. In addition to the added economic crisis and growing nationalist tendencies of the nations in the monarchy.

Discrepancies between the Czechs and Austrian Germans began to intensify significantly. Especially after the so-called German Whit program from 1899. The Germans demanded ethnic division of the Czech lands and the establishment of regions that would be plugged directly to Vienna and suppressed by the significance provincial authorities.That the Germans failed to enforce, and so continued work by blocking the assembly.

In 1908 he came into office a new pro-German government that was not going to solve the Czech question. Nevertheless, the government replaced several times until the internal political crisis monarchy reached the elections in 1911, which had come from a powerful new government. Voting crisis is not resolved, but later was used in the preparation of the Czechoslovak National Committee at the end of the First World War and the revolutionary National Assembly.

New anti-Czech exchange Vienna government was confirmed when the emperor, under the pretext of poor condition of the Czech economy, dissolved the provincial Czech Committee and in his place he appointed extraordinary Administrative Commission. Czech politicians rebelled. In March 1914, once again held Czech-German negotiations.For the Germans stood heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand d'Este, who granted them special protection. Negotiations jumped again unsuccessfully. Fateful turning point happened to the assassination of the heir Franz Ferdinand, and his wife Sophia - born Chotková - in Sarajevo in 1914. Austria's assassination served as a reason for starting the war, in which eventually involved all of the world powers.

War meant the Austro-Hungarian army and increasing the impact of the suppression of human liberties. Disagreement with mobilization or war meant persecution. Freedom of the press was suspended and arrested anti-war opinions. A similar fate was waiting for such a future first Czechoslovak Prime Minister Karel Kramar and other Czech politicians. Monarchy feared internal disturbances and proceeded to hard Germanization.

Deep economic crisis and zero progress on the battlefield, which also brought a huge number of casualties, caused the Central Powers led by Germany to come up with an offer of peace. But there States to the Agreement led by the U.S. refused. U.S. President Wilson finally in 1917 with the conclusion of peace ascended alone. Part of the peace agreements were also able to self-determination for the Czechs. Which is refused Central Powers, namely Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. They tried to take advantage of Czech politicians, headed by Thomas G. Masaryk and Edvard Benes, who sought support for the creation of independent Czechoslovakia in France, Great Britain, and especially the U.S.. Now foreign missions Masaryk and Beneš was probably the greatest contribution to the establishment of requirements of Czechs and Slovaks in the negotiations on postwar arrangements.

Deepening military and political crisis of Austria-Hungary needed a solution. In May 1917, therefore, met the Imperial Council, featuring the political representatives of the Slavic peoples with the demand for federalization of the monarchy. But stand against Germans and Hungarians. Czechs therefore 13th July 1918 created the Czechoslovak National Committee, which was to prepare a detachment from the monarchy. As the war drew to a close, the monarchy began to crumble.

The final disintegration of Austria-Hungary began in the Czech lands. National Committee delegation led by Charles acted Kramář 28th October 1918 with Benes, representative of the anti-Austrian resistance abroad, the creation of independent Czechoslovakia. The whole process of separation greatly helped spread the message that Austria-Hungary was recognized by all the terms of peace offered, which included the recognition of the autonomy of the peoples of the monarchy.Czechs began to think that their independence is decided. In the cities, because people immediately began to demonstrate and destroying symbols of monarchy. On the same evening, National Committee issued the first law, which established the independent Czechoslovakia.

Jitka Zadražilová, zadrazilova@mediafax.cz

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FOCUS: Vzniku samostatného Československa předcházela krize habsburské monarchie

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