TNBiz (TNBiz)
Markets  |  February 28, 2013 22:35:10

List of tests for cancer. Which you can say to the doctor for free?

People over 40 years with a GP on a comprehensive tour of the nation every two years. Preventive inspection is a thorough and comprehensive examination. Definitely settle for a quick blood sampling and measuring the pressure. Part of the examination should be such as cancer prevention and cancer risk assessment: examination of the skin, rectum, patients at risk of clinical examination of the testicles or breasts.

Once every four years, after forty ECG performed at each inspection then check your blood sugar (glucose).For women over 45 years to verify whether the preventive mammography examination. If not, your doctor will recommend a woman there. When you undergo testing themselves without the "application form", it will come to 700 crowns.

From 50 years in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer test performed for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. From 50 to 55 can be tested free of charge each year, over 55 every two years, or you can go once every ten years on colonoscopy. Younger without medical advice it must pay themselves. It is about 700 to 1000 CZK.

Women should not underestimate breast cancer and mammograms regularly attend. There would have to send you to a gynecologist for the first time when you reach 45 years old, and then every two years.

Popular is the last time the comprehensive screening, which is the ideal way to get very detailed information on health status - regardless of what is covered by health insurance. Investigations combines several investigative methods and is mainly focused on the early detection of civilization, cardiovascular and oncological diseases.

"Comprehensive screening is able to detect predisposition for example, cancer, atherosclerosis, stroke, or heart attack. In layman's terms can answer the question of why some people drink alcohol regularly, smoke more cigarettes, and yet survive to old age, but others do not have such health available, "said Associate Professor Lubomir Novak, Head of Department of Internal Medicine Clinic GHC in Prague.

What we doctors can do for examination?

When we fear cancer: ultrasound

Painless test that uses ultrasound to view organs waves. It is mainly used to display solid organs, not hollow organs.

Displays the status of the lymph nodes in any location (groin nadklíček, armpits, neck), breast condition (it is a test that complements mammography examinations), abdominal organs (liver, spleen, gall bladder, the pancreas, kidney), pelvic organs ( prostate, uterus, ovaries) and deep affection walls of the esophagus, bronchi, stomach or bowel cancer.

When we are afraid of the tumor: an X-ray

X-rays, we find the presence of disease (cancer in non-malignant) in imaging of the body. For the investigation of the breast is determined by the so-called mammography, which uses X-rays with low energy. Images are usually done without preparation the patient.

When we are afraid of lung cancer: bronchoscopy

At this examination flexible tube introduced through the mouth into the trachea, bronchi.At the end there is a video camera that displays the respiratory mucosa. If the suspicion of tumor involvement or other disease, it is possible to remove a sample of tissue for microscopic examination. Bronchoscopy is performed under local anesthesia.

When bojme kidney cancer: dynamic renal scintigraphy

The findings of renal function. The doctor monitors the rate of excretion of radioactive diagnostic drug that is excreted by the kidneys.After intravenous administration of radioactive substances to the patient sits before the radiation detector. Radioactivity scanning is done a few minutes.

When we are afraid of their heart: echocardiography and ECG

Echocardiography is a painless ultrasound test of the heart, in which the doctor is studying cardiac function (as valves, size and download ventricles and atria, and other parameters). When electrocardiography (ECG), after attaching electrodes to the chest measured pulses emitted from the nerve centers control heart rate.

Knowledge of the performance status of the heart is necessary especially when considering treatment of anthracycline chemotherapy (used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, sarcomas, leukemia), and prior to the implementation of intensive treatment, eg before bone marrow transplantation.

When we are afraid of cancer of the duodenum: ERCP

ERCP is a diagnostic and therapeutic examination the duodenum, bile duct and pancreas.Mouth is introduced into the duodenum flexible tube with a video camera and working channel through which it is possible to take samples of suspicious locations mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Investigates due to suspected biliary tract disease, gallbladder or pancreas (stones, inflammation, tumor, narrowing outlets).

When we are afraid of gastric cancer: gastroscopy

It is a diagnostic and therapeutic examinations stomach when searching for deposits of tumor in the stomach, after other causes of the patient's complaints (gastric ulcer, inflammationgastric mucosa, bleeding in the stomach, gastric hyperacidity with the return of its contents into the esophagus). Mouth to the stomach is introduced flexible tube with a video camera and working channel through which it is possible to take samples of suspicious locations mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract.

It is recommended that preventive test for the presence of blood in the stool. For this test, all citizens in the Czech Republic qualify for free and can apply for one practitioner.

When we are afraid leukemia: bone marrow aspiration

Getting bone marrow function. Exclude or confirm the presence of bone marrow cancer (leukemia, lymphoma) or bone marrow (eg involvement in tumors of the lung, breast, etc.).

The local anesthetic is made strong bone marrow aspiration needle. Suitable places to take either the sternum or ilium. Sampling to obtain liquid hematopoietic tissue or bone marrow roller. In certain cases, you can also perform the examination under general anesthesia.

When we are afraid of bone cancer: bone scintigraphy

The doctor looks for tumor deposits in the bone so that the patient shall medicine that is taken up preferentially in bone tissue, particularly in areas where there is inflammation or tumor present.

After intravenous administration of radioactive substances can ill for approximately two hours to leave the nuclear medicine department. Once the patient is lying down and returns the detector sensed distribution radioakticního radiation. Radioactivity scanning is performed for several minutes. With the exception of initial injection is a painless examination.

When we are afraid of cancer of the colon and rectum: rectoscopy, colonoscopy

The diagnostic process include careful history, palpatory examination of the abdomen, rectal palpation examination, the introduction of an optical device into the rectum and intestines (rectoscopy, colonoscopy) and sampling of tissue for microscopic examination. In the following suspicious ultrasound and CT.

When the fear of breast cancer: mammography

Health insurance in this country pays every woman over 45 biennial mammography and ultrasound often supplemented record. When a suspicious finding is examined at shorter intervals. Women over 69 years I recommend mammography checks, even if the insurance company does not pay.

In your own interest to any woman 40 or older should perform breast self-examination. Girls in families with an increased incidence of cancer by 20 years.

When the fear of ovarian cancer: sonography and magnetic resonance

Diagnosis is made by the gynecological examination, but mainly through imaging sonography and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The laboratory results for ovarian cancer should be suspected at higher values ??of tumor marker CA 125, higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate or CRP (C-reactive protein).

When the fear of cervical cancer: oncological cytology

Decisive for diagnosis of gynecological cancer cytology examination. Plain gynecologist makes examination using special optics (the so-calledcolposcopy) and its examination may not be as accurate. Only microscopic analysis of cells obtained from a swab from your own tissue provides the exact status.

Even the layman is clear the importance of having regular gynecological examinations if, when one performs smear and cytological analysis. Can přednádorové to capture changes that are medically manageable with minimal risks. Very promising preventive measure seems to be the possibility of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV).

When the fear of prostate cancer: ultrasound probe

The most common prostate hyperplasia is her, suffered after the 50th In every other man. Therefore, it is important to have in his advanced age urologa.Vyšetření prostate is performed finger palpation of the rectum and ultrasound. Through the abdominal wall can obtain a bladder and prostate.

More detailed examination is carried miniature ultrasound probe that is inserted into the rectum. In cases of suspected tumor is performed percutaneous sampling of tissue for histological examination.

When we are afraid of pancreatic cancer:CT

The disease is usually identified later using imaging procedures. The tumor diagnosed by ultrasound or CT. Frequently used combined procedure endoscopic-radiological methods (ERCP). The diagnosis is necessary to histological examination.

When we are afraid of skin cancer: screening for skin

It is appropriate to monitor for any spots on the skin and any change in size or color it is necessary to consult a doctor. Carcinomas are aggressive and luckily enough for its surface occurrence facilitate early diagnosis and surgical removal.Therapy consists primarily of surgical removal of bearings or later followed by radiotherapy.

When we are afraid of the uterine body cancer: sonography

Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common gynecological cancer in the country. Diagnosis and determining the extent of disease is based sonography and magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopy (hysteroscopy) and cytological analysis of the sample tissue during curettage samples are taken separately from the cervix and body.

Important is the cervical cancer screening. Very promising preventive measure seems to be the possibility of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV).

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